Jamzy Wang

life is a struggle,be willing to do,be happy to bear~~~


2014-03-09 22:47

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//DJB hash function
  unsigned long hash(unsigned char *str)
        unsigned long hash = 5381;
        int c;
        while (c = *str++)
            hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + c; /* hash * 33 + c */
        return hash;

Which hashing algorithm is best for uniqueness and speed? Example (good) uses include hash dictionaries.

I know there are things like SHA-256 and such, but these algorithms are designed to be secure, which usually means they are slower than algorithms that are less unique. I want a hash algorithm designed to be fast, yet remain fairly unique to avoid collisions.

up vote 1311 down vote accepted

I tested some different algorithms, measuring speed and number of collisions.

I used three different key sets:

For each corpus, the number of collisions and the average time spent hashing was recorded.

I tested:


Each result contains the average hash time, and the number of collisions

Hash           Lowercase      Random UUID  Numbers
=============  =============  ===========  ==============
Murmur            145 ns      259 ns          92 ns
                    6 collis    5 collis       0 collis
FNV-1a            152 ns      504 ns          86 ns
                    4 collis    4 collis       0 collis
FNV-1             184 ns      730 ns          92 ns
                    1 collis    5 collis       0 collis*
DBJ2a             158 ns      443 ns          91 ns
                    5 collis    6 collis       0 collis***
DJB2              156 ns      437 ns          93 ns
                    7 collis    6 collis       0 collis***
SDBM              148 ns      484 ns          90 ns
                    4 collis    6 collis       0 collis**
SuperFastHash     164 ns      344 ns         118 ns
                   85 collis    4 collis   18742 collis
CRC32             250 ns      946 ns         130 ns
                    2 collis    0 collis       0 collis
LoseLose          338 ns        -             -
               215178 collis


Do collisions actually happen?

Yes. I started writing my test program to see if hash collisions actually happen - and are not just a theoretical construct. They do indeed happen:

FNV-1 collisions

  • creamwove collides with quists

FNV-1a collisions

  • costarring collides with liquid
  • declinate collides with macallums
  • altarage collides with zinke
  • altarages collides with zinkes

Murmur2 collisions

  • cataract collides with periti
  • roquette collides with skivie
  • shawl collides with stormbound
  • dowlases collides with tramontane
  • cricketings collides with twanger
  • longans collides with whigs

DJB2 collisions

  • hetairas collides with mentioner
  • heliotropes collides with neurospora
  • depravement collides with serafins
  • stylist collides with subgenera
  • joyful collides with synaphea
  • redescribed collides with urites
  • dram collides with vivency

DJB2a collisions

  • haggadot collides with loathsomenesses
  • adorablenesses collides with rentability
  • playwright collides with snush
  • playwrighting collides with snushing
  • treponematoses collides with waterbeds

CRC32 collisions

  • codding collides with gnu
  • exhibiters collides with schlager

SuperFastHash collisions

  • dahabiah collides with drapability
  • encharm collides with enclave
  • grahams collides with gramary
  • ...snip 79 collisions...
  • night collides with vigil
  • nights collides with vigils
  • finks collides with vinic


The other subjective measure is how randomly distributed the hashes are. Mapping the resulting HashTables shows how evenly the data is distributed. All the hash functions show good distribution when mapping the table linearly:

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Or as a Hilbert Map (XKCD is always relevant):

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Except when hashing number strings ("1", "2", ..., "216553") (for example, zip codes), where patterns begin to emerge in most of the hashing algorithms:


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All except FNV-1a, which still look plenty random to me:

Enter image description here

In fact, Murmur2 seems to have even better randomness with Numbers than FNV-1a:

Enter image description here

When I look at the FNV-1a "number" map, I think I see subtle vertical patterns. With Murmur I see no patterns at all. What do you think?

The extra * in the above table denotes how bad the randomness is. With FNV-1a being the best, and DJB2x being the worst:

        FNV-1: *
         DJB2: **
        DJB2a: **
         SDBM: ***
          CRC: *******************
     Loselose: **************************

I originally wrote this program to decide if I even had to worry about collisions: I do.

And then it turned into making sure that the hash functions were sufficiently random.

FNV-1a algorithm

The FNV1 hash comes in variants that return 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 and 1024 bit hashes.

The FNV-1a algorithm is:

hash = FNV_offset_basis
for each octetOfData to be hashed
    hash = hash xor octetOfData
    hash = hash * FNV_prime
return hash

Where the constants FNV_offset_basis and FNV_prime depend on the return hash size you want:

Hash Size    Prime                       Offset
===========  =========================== =================================
32-bit       16777619                    2166136261
64-bit       1099511628211               14695981039346656037
128-bit      309485009821345068724781371 144066263297769815596495629667062367629
    prime: 2^168 + 2^8 + 0x63 = 374144419156711147060143317175368453031918731002211
    offset: 100029257958052580907070968620625704837092796014241193945225284501741471925557
    prime: 2^344 + 2^8 + 0x57 = 35835915874844867368919076489095108449946327955754392558399825615420669938882575126094039892345713852759
    offset: 9659303129496669498009435400716310466090418745672637896108374329434462657994582932197716438449813051892206539805784495328239340083876191928701583869517785
    prime: 2^680 + 2^8 + 0x8d = 5016456510113118655434598811035278955030765345404790744303017523831112055108147451509157692220295382716162651878526895249385292291816524375083746691371804094271873160484737966720260389217684476157468082573
    offset: 1419779506494762106872207064140321832088062279544193396087847491461758272325229673230371772250864096521202355549365628174669108571814760471015076148029755969804077320157692458563003215304957150157403644460363550505412711285966361610267868082893823963790439336411086884584107735010676915

See the main FNV page for details.

As a practical matter:

  • 32-bit UInt32,
  • 64-bit UInt64, and
  • 128-bit Guid can be useful

All my results are with the 32-bit variant.

FNV-1 better than FNV-1a?

No. FNV-1a is all around better. There was more collisions with FNV-1a when using the English word corpus:

Hash    Word Collisions
======  ===============
FNV-1   1
FNV-1a  4

Now compare lowercase and uppercase:

Hash    lowercase word Collisions  UPPERCASE word collisions
======  =========================  =========================
FNV-1   1                          9
FNV-1a  4                          11

In this case FNV-1a isn't "400%" worse than FN-1, only 20% worse.

I think the more important takeaway is that there are two classes of algorithms when it comes to collisions:

  • collisions rare: FNV-1, FNV-1a, DJB2, DJB2a, SDBM
  • collisions common: SuperFastHash, Loselose

And then there's the how evenly distributed the hashes are:

  • outstanding distribution: Murmur2, FNV-1a, SuperFastHas
  • excellent distribution: FNV-1
  • good distribution: SDBM, DJB2, DJB2a
  • horrible distribution: Loselose


Murmur? Sure, why not


@whatshisname wondered how a CRC32 would perform, added numbers to the table.

CRC32 is pretty good. Few collisions, but slower, and the overhead of a 1k lookup table.

Snip all erroneous stuff about CRC distribution - my bad

Up until today I was going to use FNV-1a as my de facto hash-table hashing algorithm. But now I'm switching to Murmur2:

  • Faster
  • Better randomnessification of all classes of input

And I really, really hope there's something wrong with the SuperFastHash algorithm I found; it's too bad to be as popular as it is.

Update: From the MurmurHash3 homepage on Google:

(1) - SuperFastHash has very poor collision properties, which have been documented elsewhere.

So I guess it's not just me.

Update: I realized why Murmur is faster than the others. MurmurHash2 operates on four bytes at a time. Most algorithms are byte by byte:

for each octet in Key

This means that as keys get longer Murmur gets its chance to shine.


GUIDs are designed to be unique, not random

A timely post by Raymond Chen reiterates the fact that "random" GUIDs are not meant to be used for their randomness. They, or a subset of them, are unsuitable as a hash key:

Even the Version 4 GUID algorithm is not guaranteed to be unpredictable, because the algorithm does not specify the quality of the random number generator. The Wikipedia article for GUID contains primary research which suggests that future and previous GUIDs can be predicted based on knowledge of the random number generator state, since the generator is not cryptographically strong.

Randomess is not the same as collision avoidance; which is why it would be a mistake to try to invent your own "hashing" algorithm by taking some subset of a "random" guid:

int HashKeyFromGuid(Guid type4uuid)
   //A "4" is put somewhere in the GUID.
   //I can't remember exactly where, but it doesn't matter for
   //the illustrative purposes of this pseudocode
   int guidVersion = ((type4uuid.D3 & 0x0f00) >> 8);
   Assert(guidVersion == 4);

   return (int)GetFirstFourBytesOfGuid(type4uuid);

Note: Again, I put "random GUID" in quotes, because it's the "random" variant of GUIDs. A more accurate description would be Type 4 UUID. But nobody knows what type 4, or types 1, 3 and 5 are. So it's just easier to call them "random" GUIDs.

All English Words mirrors